It was only a matter of time before attacks were seen in the wild, and now it’s happened. A known threat actor has mounted a large cryptomining campaign using the recently disclosed Apache Struts 2 critical remote code-execution vulnerability. It uses a new malware designed for persistence and stealth, dubbed CroniX.
The malware’s snappy name comes from the fact that it uses the Cron tool for persistence and Xhide for launching executables with fake process names, according to researchers at F5 Labs, who analyzed the campaign.
The Apache Struts 2 namespace vulnerability (CVE-2018-11776) was disclosed just two weeks ago by researchers at Semmle. Researchers have warned that it has the potential to open the door to even more critical havoc than the bug at the root of the infamous Equifax breach, which was also an Apache Struts 2 flaw (CVE-2017-5638). That’s quite a statement given that the attack resulted in the exposure of personally identifiable information (PII) of 147 million consumers, costing the Fortune 500 credit-reporting company more than $439 million in damages and leading to the resignation of several of its executives.
The new campaign makes use of one of the proof-of-concept exploits that were published on Github2 and Twitter just days after the latest flaw was publicized. Adversaries are using it to gain unauthenticated remote code-execution capabilities on targeted Linux machines in order to install a Monero cryptomining script, F5 researchers said.
“As with many other Apache Struts 2 vulnerabilities, CVE-2018-11776 allows attackers to inject Object-Graph Navigation Language (OGNL) expressions, which might contain malicious Java code that is evaluated under several circumstances,” the team explained in a posting Tuesday. “This time, the injection point is within the URL. The attacker sends a single HTTP request while injecting an OGNL expression that, once evaluated, executes shell commands to download and execute a malicious file.”
They added, “considering it’s only been two weeks since this vulnerability was discovered, it’s worth noting how fast attackers are weaponizing vulnerabilities and how quickly researchers are seeing them in the wild.”
Taking a closer look at the malware, the team saw the malware downloads a file called “H,” which turns out to be an old XHide tool for launching executables with a fake process name, the researchers said. In this case, it launches a fork of the XMRig Monero miner, with an embedded configuration (pool, username and password), while changing the process name to the more innocuous-sounding “java.”
The analysts also saw that three Cron jobs are used for persistence, with two of them refreshing the backdoor every day with downloads from the C2 server. Another job downloads a daily file named “anacrond,” which saves itself in various Cron job files around the system. In all three cases, the scripts are used to connect to the C2 server and download the deployment bash script to restart the mining process; older versions of the scripts are then deleted off the system.
CroniX also a competitive malware, locating and deleting the binaries of any previously installed cryptominers so as to claim all of the CPU resources for itself, F5 found.
“For some miners, the attacker decides to take a more careful approach and check each process name and process CPU usage, and then kill only those processes that utilize 60 percent or more of the CPU resources,” F5 researchers said. “This is probably done to avoid killing legitimate processes as the names of these miners (crond, sshd and syslogs) typically relate to legitimate programs on a Linux system.”
Comparing the modus operandi of the operation, F5 researchers believe the actor is the same group that was behind a previous campaign exploiting Jenkins servers via CVE-2017-1000353. That campaign was uncovered two months ago.
“The malware deployment pattern…similar deployed file names and the quite unique usage of the XHide process-faker made us believe that the threat actor behind the exploitation of this fresh Struts 2 vulnerability is the same one,” researchers noted in the analysis.
One difference is that in the previous campaign, the threat actor used a Chinese Git website to host malicious files. Here, the attackers are using a dedicated web server hosted in the U.S., along with domain names designating the Pacific island of Palau (.pw) – believed registered by a Russian registrant.
While cryptomining can be seen as less destructive than wiper malware, ransomware or Equifax-like mass data exfiltration (all of which can be carried out using this flaw), Jeannie Warner, security manager at WhiteHat Security, noted that exploit development tends to be faster for more widely embedded flaws, highlighting the importance of patching this particular issue immediately.
“Apache Struts is used by some of the world’s largest companies,” she said via email. “The more common the vulnerability, the more it helps attackers simplify their process…and the easier it becomes for non-skilled hackers to compromise more websites. Methods to exploit this newest Struts vulnerability are already available online, so it is absolutely critical that all companies implement the patch immediately. There’s no time to waste.”
More attacks should be anticipated; in fact, while Linux machines seem to be the target for this particular CroniX effort, the F5 analysis uncovered an additional file lurking on the server that seems tailored to Microsoft’s OS.
“[The file] at /win/checking-test.hta holds a Visual Basic script that calls a Microsoft Windows cmd to run a Powershell command on a targeted victim,” researchers said. “So, it seems this threat actor is targeting Windows OS (not just Linux) using another operation hosted on the same server.”