Proof-of-concept exploit code surfaced on GitHub on Friday, raising the stakes on two existing Apache Struts 2 bugs that allow for remote code-execution and denial-of-service attacks on vulnerable installations.
The Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) issued an alert regarding the two bugs, tracked as CVE-2019-0230 and CVE-2019-0233. Impacted are Apache Struts versions 2.0.0 through 2.5.20. Remediation includes upgrading to Struts 2.5.22, according to the Apache Struts Security Team.
Struts 2 is an open-source coding framework and library for enterprise developers popular with developers and companies when creating Java-based applications. Both the exploitable vulnerabilities in question were fixed last November.
Researchers have warned of outdated installations of Apache Struts 2 and that if left unpatched they can open the door to more critical holes similar to a bug at the root of the massive Equifax breach, which was also an Apache Struts 2 flaw (CVE-2017-5638).
PoC Released to GitHub
The proof-of-concept (PoC) released this week raises the greatest concern with CVE-2019-0230, originally rated important when first uncovered by Matthias Kaiser at Apple Information Security. The bug is triggered when a threat actor sends a malicious Object-Graph Navigation Language (OGNL) expressions that can then open the door for a remote code-execution attack, according to the security bulletin. OGNL is a Java language that can let attackers access data objects, and then use them to create and inject server-side code.
“Successful exploitation of the most severe of these vulnerabilities (CVE-2019-0230) could allow for remote code-execution in the context of the affected application. Depending on the privileges associated with the application, an attacker could install programs; view, change or delete data; or create new accounts with full user rights,” according to a bulletin issued Friday by the Multi-State Information Sharing & Analysis Center at the Center for Internet Security.
While the PoC attack and exploit posted to GitHub targets CVE-2019-0230, the Apache Struts Security Team also urged users to patch for the DoS bug (CVE-2019-0233). The vulnerability affects the write permissions of file directories that could lead to conditions ripe for a DoS attack.
According to the Apache Struts 2 Wiki description of the bug, this flaw can be triggered with a file upload to a Strut’s Action that exposes the file.
“An attacker may manipulate the request such that the working copy of the uploaded file is set to read-only. As a result, subsequent actions on the file will fail with an error. It might also be possible to set the Servlet container’s temp directory to read only, such that subsequent upload actions will fail,” according the description.
The Apache security bulletin recommends upgrading to the most recent version of Apache Struts. It also suggests security teams verify no unauthorized system modifications have occurred on the system before applying the patch, and they run all software as a non-privileged user (one without administrative privileges) to diminish the effects of a successful attack.
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